Michael Brecher, The Foreign Policy
System of Israel, New Haven, Yale University Press,
1972, p. 236.
Unseen Yet Always Present: The Life Story of Shaul
Avigur, Tel-Aviv, Ministry of Defense Publishing
The information concerning Levanon’s
origins and early days in Israel and later in England is
from my interview with Michael Sherbourrne, London,
Sept. 31, 1989 (Louis Rosenblum Papers, 1964-2004,
Jewish Archives of the WRHS, MS 4926). Sherbourne and
his wife, Muriel, made aliya in 1939 and were in
the same training group as Levanon.
The Struggle for Soviet Jewish Emigration, 1948-1967,
New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 105.
Ro’i, op. cit., pp.105-114.
op. cit., p. 122.
Litvinoff’s financial angels were Label
Katz, President of the Conference of Presidents of
American Jewish Organizations and Israel M. Sieff,
Managing Director of Marks and Spenser, U.K.
Goldmann, the president of the World Jewish Congress,
agreed to contribute 25,000 dollars yearly to the
American Jewish Congress, which, in turn, contributed
that sum to the Jewish Minority Research, whose office
was housed in the AJC New York headquarters. Pauline
Peretz, L’action des émissaires de Nativ aux
États-Unis, 1958-1974, Bulletin du Centre de
recherche français de Jérusalem, 14, printemps 2004, p.
The Foreign Agents Registration Act is a
United States law passed in 1938 requiring information
from foreign sources to be properly identified to the
American public. The Foreign Agent Registration Unit
within the Criminal Division of Dept. of Justice handles
execution of the law. See:
Netzer was sent from Palestine by Avigur to assist
Bericha (Hebrew, flight), a postwar movement of Jewish
Holocaust survivors, whose aim was to reach the
Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, with the hope of
embarking for Palestine. From1957 to1961, he was posted
by the Office as Second Secretary in the Warsaw, Poland
embassy. Subsequently, Netzer was appointed deputy to
Binyamin Eliav (Ro’i, op. cit., n. 109, p.383).
Tari worked with Rosenne in Paris and
then took over the Bibliothèque Juive Contemporaine when
Rosenne left in 1961, Roi, op. cit., p. 124.
Shtadlan and Shtadlanut
In Europe, from medieval times, a shtadlan was a
prominent Jew with special status granted by a local,
regional, or national ruling power. The name is derived
from the Aramaic root שדל which in
its reflexive form means “to make an effort” or “to
intercede on behalf of.” The shtadlan — 'court Jew' or
'useful Jew' — represented the interests of a Jewish
community to the non-Jewish authorities and, oppositely,
was responsible for carrying out edicts issued by the
ruling authority for the Jewish populace. The role of
the shtadlan died out in Western Europe after the French
Revolution but continued in Eastern Europe up to the
middle of the 19th century. The shtadlan’s practice of
intercession or advocacy is called shtadlanut.
Over the last century, shtadlanut acquired a pejorative
connotation: used derisively to decry a Jewish
representative who failed to stand up to an oppressive
authority — denoting weakness and eagerness to
Abstracted from Encyclopedia Judaica, pg. 1462,
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