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Involvement in the Soviet Jewry Movement — by Louis Rosenblum
The Government of Israel — The Elephant in the Room
End Notes


Michael Brecher, The Foreign Policy System of Israel, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1972, p. 236.
2 Arieh Boaz, Unseen Yet Always Present: The Life Story of Shaul Avigur, Tel-Aviv, Ministry of Defense Publishing House, 2001.
3 The information concerning Levanon’s origins and early days in Israel and later in England is from my interview with Michael Sherbourrne, London, Sept. 31, 1989 (Louis Rosenblum Papers, 1964-2004, Jewish Archives of the WRHS, MS 4926). Sherbourne and his wife, Muriel, made aliya in 1939 and were in the same training group as Levanon.
4 Yaacov Ro’i, The Struggle for Soviet Jewish Emigration, 1948-1967, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 105.
5 Ro’i, op. cit., pp.105-114.
6 Ro’i, op. cit., p. 122.
7 Litvinoff’s financial angels were Label Katz, President of the Conference of Presidents of American Jewish Organizations and Israel M. Sieff, Managing Director of Marks and Spenser, U.K.
8 Nahum Goldmann, the president of the World Jewish Congress, agreed to contribute 25,000 dollars yearly to the American Jewish Congress, which, in turn, contributed that sum to the Jewish Minority Research, whose office was housed in the AJC New York headquarters. Pauline Peretz, L’action des émissaires de Nativ aux États-Unis, 1958-1974, Bulletin du Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, 14, printemps 2004, p. 58.
9 The Foreign Agents Registration Act is a United States law passed in 1938 requiring information from foreign sources to be properly identified to the American public. The Foreign Agent Registration Unit within the Criminal Division of Dept. of Justice handles execution of the law. See:
10 In 1945 Netzer was sent from Palestine by Avigur to assist Bericha (Hebrew, flight), a postwar movement of Jewish Holocaust survivors, whose aim was to reach the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, with the hope of embarking for Palestine. From1957 to1961, he was posted by the Office as Second Secretary in the Warsaw, Poland embassy. Subsequently, Netzer was appointed deputy to Binyamin Eliav (Ro’i, op. cit., n. 109, p.383).
11 Tari worked with Rosenne in Paris and then took over the Bibliothèque Juive Contemporaine when Rosenne left in 1961, Roi, op. cit., p. 124.


Shtadlan and Shtadlanut

In Europe, from medieval times, a shtadlan was a prominent Jew with special status granted by a local, regional, or national ruling power. The name is derived from the Aramaic root
שדל which in its reflexive form means “to make an effort” or “to intercede on behalf of.” The shtadlan — 'court Jew' or 'useful Jew' — represented the interests of a Jewish community to the non-Jewish authorities and, oppositely, was responsible for carrying out edicts issued by the ruling authority for the Jewish populace. The role of the shtadlan died out in Western Europe after the French Revolution but continued in Eastern Europe up to the middle of the 19th century. The shtadlan’s practice of intercession or advocacy is called shtadlanut.

Over the last century, shtadlanut acquired a pejorative connotation: used derisively to decry a Jewish representative who failed to stand up to an oppressive authority — denoting weakness and eagerness to compromise.

Abstracted from Encyclopedia Judaica, pg. 1462, Jerusalem, 1973.

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© 2009 Louis Rosenblum

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